Exploiting Application Servers using Clusterd 2023
This article is about Exploiting Application Servers using Clusterd.
Information about Exploiting Application Servers using Clusterd:
Clusterd is an open source application server attack toolkit. It automates the fingerprinting, exploration and exploitation phases of an application server attack.
Clusterd can be downloaded from Github link below.
The recommended way to install the cluster is to clone the Github repository using git as shown below.
git clone https://github.com/hatRiot/clusterd.git
Clusterd currently supports the following application server platforms:
- Cold fusion
- Cluster in action
The following is the lab setup we use in this article.
Attack machine: Kali Linux with Clusterd installed (192.168.56.101)
Target machine: Windows 7 running Jboss with JMX console exposed (192.168.56.102)
Collection of information
The following image shows a very basic scan using the cluster tool.
As we can see in the image above, Clusterd performs checks to find out the exact type and version of the target application server.
The following image shows the corresponding fingerprints after the scan is complete.
As we can see in the image above, there are several matching fingerprints confirming that the target server is running JBoss 4.0
Additionally, we can specify the application server type using the –a flag to limit the checks to that specific application server only. The following image shows how we can scan a server using ColdFusion specific checks.
The above results are as expected because the target server is running JBoss but not ColdFusion.
Adding the –fingerprint option to the above command with JBoss as the target revealed the following. It shows other flags that we can use against JBoss servers.
./clusterd –i 192.168.56.102 –a jboss –fingerprint
We can use the –jb-info flag to retrieve JBoss information as shown in the following command.
./clusterd -i 192.168.56.102 –a jboss –jb-info
Let’s also try to retrieve the list of deployed applications. This can be done using the following command with –jb-list flag.
./clusterd –i 192.168.56.102 –a jboss –jb-list
As we can see in the above figure, we obtained the list of war files deployed.
This section shows how we can use Clusterd to exploit vulnerable JBoss server.
Manually exploiting JBoss JMX Console:
First, let’s understand how we can use the exposed JMX console without automated tools.
The following figure shows the JBoss server running on the target computer.
Clicking on “JMX Console” button in the above window will launch the JMX Console as shown below.
There are multiple ways to deploy a war file to upload a shell. We can use the following option to deploy a war file from a remote URL. First, search for “Scanner” in JMX Console and we should see the following.
Scrolling down the page will show us the following where we can specify the URL of the war file. In our case, it is a war file with JSP shell hosted on Kali Linux’s webserver.
Click “Invoke” and you should see the following message showing that deployment is a success.
Now, we can browse the following URL to access our shell as shown below.
We can now run any system commands using this shell. The following figure shows the output of “ipconfig” command.
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Exploitation using Clusterd – 1:
We can automatically deploy a shell on the remote server using Clusterd using –deploy flag as shown below.
./clusterd –I 192.168.56.102 –a jboss –deploy /var/www/cmd.war
/var/www/cmd.war is the location of the war file with JSP shell.
As you can see in the above figure, the shell has been successfully deployed.
Exploitation using Clusterd – 2:
The target Jboss server is also vulnerable to a Verb Tampering attack (CVE-2010-0738) where security restrictions are enabled only for the “GET” and “POST” methods. Any other HTTP method, such as HEAD, if supported by the server, will not be restricted.
Run the following command to deploy our shell to the target server.
./clusterd –i 192.168.56.102 –a jboss –verb-tamper /var/www/cmd.war
/var/www/cmd.war is the location of the JSP war file.
The shell has been deployed in this case too.
We can now access this shell and run commands as shown below.