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Getting Started with Terms and Technologies

that is the first installment of Getting Started with Terms and Technologies a new collection I’m running right here on Hackers stand-up called “Hacking Databases”. we are able, to begin with the fundamentals and development of the extra advanced strategies for hacking databases.

Even though there’s a multitude of Getting Started with Terms and Technologies:’

different hacker sorts, the one target all of them percentage is the database. I frequently confer with the database because of the hacker’s Holy Grail, or the closing prize for a powerful hack.

it truly is because the database—almost through definition—is the repository of all the sweets that the hacker is pursuing. those sweets may encompass credit card data, for my part identifiable records, usernames and passwords, and intellectual assets.

every one of these objects may be bought Getting Started with Terms and Technologies:

Getting Started with Terms and Technologies
Getting Started with Terms and Technologies

Widespread sums of cash in the black market Getting Started with Terms and Technologies.

for example, credit score card numbers may be bought for between $5 to $50 relying upon the best (gold and platinum cards are worth extra than normal playing cards) and their credit score limit. So, a hack that reaps 200,000 credit playing cards numbers is worth anywhere from $1 to $10 million Getting Started with Terms and Technologies

at the same time, nation-backed hackers, like China, are after highbrow property. this would consist of designs, formulas, engineering, and other things that they can scouse borrow and produce to China for production by means of Chinese Getting Started with Terms and Technologies language businesses. this is occurring every day and some remember it the greatest theft within the records of the arena!

this is the primary installment of a new Hackers arise collection on database hacking. before we look at the way to hack a database, we want to apprehend the basics of how databases work, what square is, and what vulnerabilities are not unusual to databases Getting Started with Terms and Technologies.


So, let’s get begun in order that we can quickly get to some DB hacking Getting Started with Terms and Technologies

A rating of my readers was begging for tutorials on how to hack wireless, so with this article, i am beginning a new collection dedicated to wireless hacks. this can likely be around 6-9 articles, beginning with the basics of the technologies.

Getting Started with Terms and Technologies
Getting Started with Terms and Technologies

photograph via Shutterstock Getting Started with Terms and Technologies:

I’m able to pay attention you all groan, but you need to realize the fundamentals earlier than you get into extra advanced hacking. Then with any luck, develop your own hacks.

afterward, the following courses will cowl wardriving, DOS assaults, password hacking (WEP, WPA, WPA2, WPS, and WPA organisation), rogue APs, evil twins, wireless MitM, and wi-fi snooping. finally, we will observe how to hack Bluetooth (yes, I realize, technically it is no longer wi-fi, but I think you will discover it thrilling).

So, come alongside for this frequent and amplified experience of wireless hacking Getting Started with Terms and Technologies!

Step 1Terminology
To really apprehend a way to hack wireless, we need to dispense with basic terms and technology. First, permits’s cope with some terminology.

to begin, the get admission to point that sends out the radio frequency (RF) sign is called the AP. these APs are able to send out signals (among 2.4 and 5 Ghz) that observe some the different standards. these standards are known as 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n. inside the very close to the future, we’ll see a brand new widespread it is tentatively named 802.11ac.

The table beneath summarizes the key capabilities of those wi-fi standards Getting Started with Terms and Technologies.

those standards are generally backwardly compatible, in order that a wi-fi n adapter will also be able to choose up g and b indicators. we can focus on the most extensively used of these requirements— b, g, and n.

From the angle of the hacker, wi-fi security technology are various maximum pertinent functions. a couple of security technology has been deployed in wireless to make an inherently insecure generation secure. Our attack technique will depend on which of those safety technologies is being deployed.

So, let’s take a quick examination them Getting Started with Terms and Technologies.

WEP, or stressed equivalent privateness, changed into the first wireless security scheme hired. as it call implies, it was designed to offer safety to the give up-person that was essentially equal to the privateness that became loved in stressed surroundings. unfortunately, it failed miserably.

For some of the reason, WEP is fantastically easy to crack because of an unsuitable implementation of the RC4 encryption set of rules. it’s commonplace in an effort to crack WEP in less than five mins. that is due to the fact WEP used a very small (24-bit) initialization vector (IV) that would be captured within the datastream, and this IV could then be used to discover the password using statistical strategies Getting Started with Terms and Technologies.

despite this, I still locate it being utilized in family and small commercial enterprise implementations, but seldom in an organization’s surroundings Getting Started with Terms and Technologies.

WPA was the reaction by means of the industry to the discovered weaknesses of WEP. it is frequently referred to as WPA1 to distinguish it from WPA2.

WPA used Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) to improve the security of WEP without requiring new hardware. It nonetheless uses WEP for encryption, however, it makes the statistical assaults used to crack WEP an awful lot greater hard and time-ingesting Getting Started with Terms and Technologies.

WPA2-PSK is the implementation of WPA2 for the house or small business consumer. as the call implies, it’s the WPA2 implementation that uses a pre-shared key (PSK). it is this protection general that is used by maximum households these days, and although it’s a way greater at ease, it’s nonetheless susceptible to numerous assaults.

A function that become added in 2007 called wireless included Setup, or WPS lets us bypass the safety in WP2-PSK. we’re going to observe some attacks on WPA2-PSK in the coming weeks.

WPA2-AES is the business enterprise implementation of WPA2. It uses superior Encryption trendy or AES to encrypt statistics and is the most at ease. it is frequently coupled with a RADIUS server which is dedicated to authentication.

despite the fact that cracking it miles feasible, it is appreciably greater tough.

Like our radio, wireless has multiple channels in order that numerous verbal exchange streams do not intrude with each different. The 802.11 fashionable lets in for channels starting from 1 through Getting Started with Terms and Technologies.

within the U.S., the FCC regulates wi-fi communique and gadgets to be used inside the states are most effectively enabled to apply channels 1 through eleven. Europe uses channels 1 via 13 and Japan 1 via 14. other international locations may use the whole variety.

For the hacker, this could be beneficial statistics as a rogue AP the use of channels 12 through 14 might be invisible to U.S.-made wireless devices and protection professionals scanning for rogue get entry to points Getting Started with Terms and Technologies.

each channel has a width of 22 Mhz around its critical frequency. To avoid interference, an AP can use any of those channels, however, to avoid any overlap, channels 1, 6, and 11 are most customarily utilized within the U.S. the alternative channels may be used, however, due to the fact you need five channels among the running channels to no longer overlap indicators, with three or extra channels, only 1, 6, and eleven will paintings Getting Started with Terms and Technologies.

Step 4Datagrams and Frames
An understanding of the shape of wireless datagrams is critical for successful wi-fi hacking but is beyond the scope of this introduction. i can introduce a number of this information when vital in future tutorials, however, you could want to make an effort to have a look at wi-fi frames and datagrams from different sources.

Getting Started with Terms and Technologies
Getting Started with Terms and Technologies

in the U.S., the FCC regulates amongst other things, the energy of the wi-fi access factor’s sign. The FCC says that the get right of entry to the point’s sign can’t exceed 27 dBm (500 milliwatts). most get admission to factors to have this limit built-in, but we can exchange and override this issue, if the get right of entry to the point is able to a more potent signal. this could be useful for the hacker in putting in place evil twins and rogue access factors wherein electricity Getting Started with Terms and Technologies of the signal is essential, among different strategies.

For nearly all of our wireless hacking, we can be using aircrack-ng that’s included in back off. Even in those hacks where we use different gear such as cow patty or reaver, we are able to use the aircrack-ng suite of equipment for a few a part of the hack, so we need to turn out to be familiar with it.

I’ll in all likelihood do a devoted tutorial on aircrack-ng suite in the very near future.

one of the critical wishes to turning into a powerful wi-fi hacker is the wi-fi adapter. normally, the wireless adapter for your pc or computing device is insufficient for our purposes. the important thing capability we need is the capacity to inject packets into the access point and most run-of-the-mill wireless adapters are incapable of packet injection. Aircrack-ng has a list of wi-fi adapters that could work with their suite of gear Getting Started with Terms and Technologies.

That having been said, I fairly endorse Alfa AWUS036NH USB wireless adapter. that is what i exploit. it’s available from numerous locations for $30 to $50.


It does everything I need, is rapid, has an external antenna, is identified by using backpedal, and automatically loads its drivers. similarly, it comes in 1000mw and 2000mw variations. That can be crucial in rogue access factor hacks, notwithstanding Getting Started with Terms and Technologies the truth that the FCC limits signal to power the 500mw.

Step 8Attennas
Antennas are available in two basic types, omnidirectional and directional. most APs and wireless adapters include omnidirectional antennas, meaning that they ship and acquire in all directions.

The Alfa card that I endorse comes with an external antenna that is omnidirectional, however, has a benefit of 5dBi (benefit is a measure while carried out to antennas, of how a great deal the antenna can grow the signal). this means that it may boom the signal by using focusing the signal similar to that of a reflector on a flashlight. similarly, it may exchange role to higher acquire specific indicators as well as a cable and suction cup adapter for mounting on a wall or window.

Directional antennas also can be beneficial for hacking whilst attempting to awareness your exploits to a faraway access point. The literature contains references to wi-fi indicators that have been sent and acquired over one hundred miles or approximately 160km using directional antennas. For most business directional antennas, you can anticipate so that you can select up wi-fi conversation up to 4km or 2. four miles Getting Started with Terms and Technologies.

these can be received from diffusion of assets typically for underneath $a hundred with a benefit of between 15dBi and 20dBi. A Yagi antenna is an example of a directional antenna that is often used in hacking wi-fi over good-sized distances Getting Started with Terms and Technologies.

this is It… For Now
So, this starts our thrilling adventure into wi-fi hacking. Very quickly, you’ll be capable of hack almost every person’s wireless internet, so preserve coming again to expand your know-how and abilities in wi-fi hacking.

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what is a Database Getting Started with Terms and Technologies:

A database is a machine of software to shop and retrieve statistics in a dependent layout. Early databases were flat files, type of like a big Excel document. As databases got larger and bigger, this simple structure proved inefficient in Getting Started with Terms and Technologies.


As a result, a scientist at IBM, Dr. Codd, evolved a structure that came to be called the relational database version. it’s miles this version that about ninety seven% of all databases now use, and this consists of all of the principal software businesses.



The basics of the relational version is that records must be placed in separate tables with unique keys that hyperlink the tables to keep away from information duplication and to ease the retrieval of these records Getting Started with Terms and Technologies.

Getting Started with Terms and Technologies
Getting Started with Terms and Technologies

The shape of a Database Getting Started with Terms and Technologies:

This relational database version hyperlinks records from separate tables by way of the usage of a shared column or “key”. The diagram below is of a simple relational database model in which all the tables are connected by means of the column “id”.

primary vendors in the Database marketplace Getting Started with Terms and Technologies The business enterprise database market has a couple of companies presenting merchandise that can accomplish the same project, however in one-of-a-kind approaches. The principal players in this marketplace are Getting Started with Terms and Technologies software program products, inclusive of their namesake and MySQL.

Microsoft square Server. Microsoft entered this marketplace in the early ’90s via teaming up with Sybase to expand an organizational database presentation. As a result, MS square Server and Sybase still share many similarities. at the start, Microsoft changed into only a player in the small business market but is slowly gaining traction within the larger corporation marketplace.

MySQL. this is an open-supply database that you’ll locate behind so many websites, in part, because it’s unfastened.

IBM DB2. IBM was a unique company database company and made many the predominant trends in database design, but like the whole lot about IBM, it has been in decline in current decades.

SQLite – sqlite is an open supply, lightweight relational database. because of its light weight and performance, it’s far being constructed into almost every cellular device and browser in which records have to be saved and retrieved, even as the usage of little strength and CPU cycles. although hacking those sorts of databases has now now not been popular amongst hackers, i believe as an increasing number of data moves to our cellular gadgets, it will likely become extra popular and treasured.

different predominant providers consist of Sybase, SAS, PostgreSQL (open supply), and plenty of others. generally, like any hack, we want to do right recon to decide the software program and version to achieve success as most of the database hacks are supplier-specific Getting Started with Terms and Technologies.


Based query Language (square) Getting Started with Terms and Technologies:

whilst IBM evolved the early databases, in addition they advanced a programming language for handling and manipulation this data. They called it “established query Language,” or as it’s miles commonly regarded, square Getting Started with Terms and Technologies.


this is a easy language that makes use of English phrases in comparable ways that people who speak English use them. as an example…

choose approach “pick out a few data from columns in a table Getting Started with Terms and Technologies.


wherein means pick the records that meet this circumstance (last name = ‘smith’) Getting Started with Terms and Technologies.

moreover, words including update, INSERT, and DROP suggest in square precisely what you would count on them to mean.


sq. isn’t always picky about syntax, but it is picky about logic. despite the fact that the best exercise is to CAPITALIZE all keywords (choose, FROM, in which), it’s no longer required. further, white space is omitted. All however Microsoft, though, requires that an sq. assertion to lead to a semicolon (;). On Microsoft merchandise, it’s non-obligatory.


sq. is standardized by means of ANSI, but this standardization handiest consists of approximately 80% of the language or the center of sq.. software program publishers are unfastened to add additional commands and capabilities that are not a part of the standard. this can sometimes make it difficult to move square code between DBMS. It also makes it important to do properly reconnaissance at the database to recognize the Getting Started with Terms and Technologies manufacturer and the version earlier than attacking because the attacks are regularly particular to the producer and the version.


every of DBMS may be used from a command line, but each has its personal GUI. currently, MySQL launched a brand new GUI known as Workbench as seen within the previous phase.


Oracle, Microsoft, and others have similar GUIs that permit the administrator to access their structures.


when we want to extract data from the database, it’s said that we’re “querying” the database. As databases are repositories for information, the ability to extract or query records is some of the maximum crucial functions. As a hacker, we want to extract records, so the query is essential to getting the products.

Getting Started with Terms and Technologies
Getting Started with Terms and Technologies

The primary shape of the query looks like Getting Started with Terms and Technologies:


This statement says “give me the records in the columns listed in the pick out declaration from the desk that comes after the FROM keyword, but handiest provide me the rows that meet the situations that come after the in which key-word Getting Started with Terms and Technologies.


So, if we desired to get first call, last call, username, and password from the body of workers table for employees with the ultimate name of “Hillyer,” we may want to assemble a statement like this:


pick first_name, last_name, username, password Getting Started with Terms and Technologies

FROM team of workers

in which last_name = ‘Hillyer”;


As you may see in the screenshot above, we’ve got extracted Mike Hillyer’s file from the body of workers table together with his username and password (the password is certainly a hash of his password).

sq. injection is the most not unusual database assault and might be liable for the largest dollar extent of losses from cyber crime and advanced chronic chance (APT).

It essentially involves putting square commands within the data sorts of webpages that connect to a database. these forms then ship these square commands lower back to the database and the database will either authenticate the consumer (sure, authentication is a database feature) or give up the target records.

In future tutorials, we will spend quite a bit of time using square injection gear and executing sq. injection attacks.

Getting Started with Terms and Technologies
Getting Started with Terms and Technologies

Vulnerabilities besides showing you a way to do square Getting Started with Terms and Technologies:

we are able to observe a number of alternative vulnerabilities in databases. these contain authentication, using the database to compromise the operating system, and several others.

Now that we have blanketed the simple terminology and generation related to databases, in destiny tutorials I will show you the way to hack into these databases, so preserve coming back Getting Started with Terms and Technologies Getting Started with Terms and Technologies!



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