Where are passwords stored?
When we talk about cryptographic attacks, the easier way to interpret this is cracking words. Now, do n’t get too heated. First of all, let’s assure we understand what we ’re talking about when we talk about countersign cracking.
Today we will learn about How to crack a password .
When you have some kind of waiter — a web garçon, an FTP garçon, an SSH garçon, a game garçon, an operating system that’s sharing booklets, it does n’t import what it’s you’re going to have to have a list of usernames and watchwords stored almost on that garçon system. Now, if you ’re going to store them, which you have to do, also when someone logs in, they ’re going to break down in a username and countersign and again come to that waitperson.
What is password hashing?
You have to store the watchword. So how do you store it? Well, you could just store it in clear manual. You could literally have a list fair
on your hard drive that says, Mike and either whatever his watchword is, and Bob and whatever his countersign is, and Janet and whatever her watchword is. ” We could do that.
But the debit is that if a bad gent gets to that waiter, he could get easy access to our words. So traditionally, what we do with a countersign is that when we bring a new addict and have them type in a countersign, the watchword is nothing stored on the hard drive; we just hash it. We make a hash of the countersign.
Now, if we ’ve got a hash of the watchword sitting on the waitperson and light who’s a guest wants to log in, the waiter is going to say, please break down in your username and watchword.
So they break down in a username and countersign on their side, and again that’s diced. So the hash comes over the internet and further gets to the waiter. further the waiter compares to the hashes, and that’s how it logs in. We’d really nothing use clear handbook except in the most primitive of situations
Hacking passwords means hacking hashes
The important thing to understand presently’s that if you want to get into cryptographic attacks, if you want to hack words, what you ’re really doing is contending hashes.
There are a couple of movables that come into play right now. Number one, you have to be competent to get to that list of hashes. One of the hardest jobs of cryptographic attacks is how you get to that waitperson and how you bag those usernames and word lists. You do n’t know what the watchwords are, but how do you at least get the list?
still, it has its own set of watchwords and hashes, If you want to getyourWindowssystem.However, it depends on the brand, If you want to get to an FTP garçon. They’ve their own usernames and watchwords. The biggest part of cryptographic attacks really is n’t playing the hashes, the biggest part is getting to them.
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You can’t reverse a hash
The improvised thing we need to talk about is that if the watchword is stored in a hash, there’s no way for you to reverse that hash to figure out what the watchword is. It’s just not going to come down.
What we ’re going to do first is we ’re going to bring about hashes until we get the hash that we’ve a reduplication of, and now that we’ve the duplicate, we know what this hash is because we generated it ourselves and again we know what the countersign is.
So when we ’re talking about cryptographic attacks and in particular — we ’re going to talk about brute- force attacks, lexicon attacks, rainbow tables and all that kind of stuff — conserving in mind what we ’re doing another than anything other is generating hashes and making a comparison. When we compare the right bones, we can sometime say that we’ve the watchword.
Finding list of hashes in FreeSSH
I want to go through this process a little bit, and the elegant way to do this is to pick an arbitrary waitperson to attack. In this case, I ’m going to use a program called Free SSH, and I ’ve got it right presently. So this is Free SSH. Free SSH is a astounding little SSH and Telnet waiter. I ’ve been using this thing for bits and cycles; nothing special about it, but one of the duds that’s kind of fun is that it’s got these druggie accounts.
So I ’m going to add a addict, and I ’m going to add a addict called Timmy, and there are all these different ways I can store stuff. In this case, I ’m going to use a watchword stored as a SHA1 hash. I ’m going to give it a dangerously simple watchword, and I ’m going to call it m- i- k- e, all lowercase. Don’t try such a small countersign at home. further what do I want this jack to be equal to do with this particular SSH tool.
Now I ’ve got this Timmy in now, and I want to go ahead now, and I want to — first of all, I’ve to figure out where this Timmy watchword is. To do that, all I ’ve done there’s actually got Free SSH to save that particular one. I had to do a lot of inquiry for this old program, but I someday begin some substantiation that says all the countersigns with the SHA- 1 hash are stored in this little queue right currently. So I could open this column up and scroll it around. anymore, I can see some other doper accounts. But long’s the Timmy account right nowadays, and that’s the de facto hash that’s storing that countersign of m- i- k-e.
Using Cain and Abel for a brute-force attack
Now that I’ve the muddle, I need some device that I could take this mess value and throw it in and say, keep running a bunch of hashes until you find one that matches that. And that course, which we call a physical- strength spell, can be done in all kinds of different ways. Now, for this one particular case, I ’m going to use an old program called Cain and Abel. Let me show you that gentleman.
So this is Cain and Abel. Now, I need to alert you a couple of chattels about Cain and Abel before we get started with this. First of all, Cain and Abel is a actually, actually heavy-duty tool, but it’s authentically dated, so truly though I ’m running a hot Windows 10 system presently, there are a lot of features of Windows 10 that really just do n’t come into play currently.
The other thing is that anytime we talk about cryptographic implements like this, they ’re not bang easy to use. It would be kind of like someone saying, “ Hey, let’s go ahead and make an account spreadsheet, ” and I hand you Excel.. So there are a lot of path in right now that I ’m familiar with because I ’m familiar with this tool, but you have to do a little test on yourself.
So we take a look at this, and there’s a cracker function right today. These are different kinds of hashes because that’s by and large what we ’re mincing in this world. So I know this is a SHA- 1 hash because that’s how the Free SSH store stuff.
today’s my SHA- 1 hash tool. What I ’m going to have to do, first of all, is go over, and I ’m going to catch this hash. I ’m just doing a steady old replica, and I need to put it into the biscuit. And what I ’ve done now is I ’ve worked in this SHA- 1 hash into it.
So now, let’s advance and start rapid. So what we ’re going to do first is we ’re going to do brute force. We ’re altogether going to say, Cain and Abel, I want you to start with the letter “ a, ” make an SHA- 1 hash, make the letter “ b, ” make a SHA- 1 hash, go through all those, too do “ aa, ” more do “ ab, ” further do “ abcd. ”
So pardon we ’re successful to do is a physical- strength spell. Now, you ’ll notice that I ’ve got a lot of options away, and all of these crackers have some tool like this, so it’s going to say, just use lowercase and calculation. Now, for the sake of brevity, what I ’m going to do today’s I ’m going to make it truly simpler than that, and I ’m just going to say, just use lowercase letters.
Why long passwords are more difficult to break
Long passwords are more difficult to break because they have more possible combinations of characters. A longer password also makes it harder for an attacker to use a “brute force” method of guessing every possible combination of characters until the correct one is found. Additionally, a long password that includes a mix of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and special characters is even more secure because it increases the number of possible combinations even further.
Cracking the simple password “mike”
Cracking a simple password, such as a short word or a single dictionary word, can be relatively easy for an attacker. They can use a technique called a “dictionary attack,” where a computer program automatically tries every word in a dictionary or a list of common passwords until the correct one is found. This can be done quickly and with high success rate if the password is simple or commonly used. Another way to crack simple passwords is using a technique called a “brute force attack” where the attacker uses a computer program to systematically try every possible combination of characters until the correct one is found.
Why you should use complex passwords
It is recommended to use complex passwords for several reasons:
- Complex passwords have a higher number of possible combinations of characters, making them more difficult for an attacker to guess or crack.
- Complex passwords that include a mix of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and special characters are even more secure, as they increase the number of possible combinations even further.
- Complex passwords are less likely to be guessed using a dictionary attack or a brute force attack, which are common methods used by attackers to crack simple passwords.
- Using a unique password for each of your accounts can also help in protecting your personal data, if one of your account is compromised, the attacker will not have access to all your accounts.
- Lastly, it’s important to use a password manager to store your complex passwords in a secure way. This way you don’t have to remember all those complex passwords.
Using Cain and Abel for a dictionary attack
Cain and Abel is a password recovery tool that can be used for a variety of tasks, including a dictionary attack. A dictionary attack is a method of guessing a password by trying every word in a dictionary or a list of common passwords.
When using Cain and Abel for a dictionary attack, the program can be configured to try every word in a specified dictionary file. The program can also be configured to try variations of the words in the dictionary, such as adding numbers or special characters to the end of the word.
Cain and Abel can also try different character sets and character combinations, and can be used to perform other types of attacks like brute force, rainbow tables, and cryptanalysis attack.
It’s worth noting that dictionary attack can be slow and less effective if the password is complex and not in the dictionary. Additionally, it is illegal to perform a dictionary attack on any account or network without proper authorization.