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Networking Basics for Hackers, Part 1 2023

Networking Basics for Hackers, Part 1 As you understand, at the beginning of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the Ukrainian army requested for our assistance to hack IP cameras throughout Ukraine.

This was meant offer surveillance to the Ukraine Networking Basics for Hackers, Part 1:

military and intelligence on Russian troop movements and later to report conflict crimes. you can examine more about it right here.

confronted with this pressing undertaking, we went about it strategically and methodically. the first issue we did turned into to find the cameras the use of such Open source Intelligence (OSINT) gear as Google, Shodan, and Censys. as soon as we placed the cameras,

Networking Basics for Hackers, Part 1
Networking Basics for Hackers, Part 1 2023

the following step changed into to attempt to hack into them the usage of default usernames and passwords. It makes little sense to have interaction plenty of time and resources into hacking a gadget if it is still the usage of those default credentials.

constantly start with the only solution first!

perhaps no longer extraordinarily, this approach changed into a success in a very large range of instances.

To help you to your efforts to get admission to those cameras, we’ve published our default digicam username and passwords for the essential digicam producers.

For greater on IP digicam Hacking, see grasp OTW and David Bombal discussing this problem here on YouTube.

additionally, to study more superior strategies for IP digicam Hacking, you should purchase this course in our on-line store here.

the following step of my adventure was into the fundamentals of networking. in this step I learnt what networking actually is, how the internet works and information into how networking is established into various layers and the distinctive duties and capabilities of each layer.

the first video that I watched was through
referred to as “community fundamentals”:

on this video Tom takes you via a top level view of networking, primarily referencing the “net Protocol Suite” or IPS, that is a 4 layered version to help describe the distinct processes of networking which Tom explains is possibly an easier manner of providing the “OSI model” as the application layer can also cowl the Presentation and consultation layers.

i discovered this video extremely informative and despite the fact that Tom mentions multiple instances that his illustrations aren’t superb, i found them extraordinarily useful to be able to visualise the numerous methods as without them I assume I might also are becoming even more lost than I did at instances.

I did should rewatch this video a couple of instances with a view to benefit a greater understanding of the content material as there may be so much information in here for a person that is aware of very little approximately networking.

The slides are also to be had to down load that is a pleasant addition while writing notes whilst watching the video. The aspect i found maximum beneficial about this video is how Tom has defined how computer systems speak as though they had been human.

This context helped me keep in mind that the request/response process is still a kind of communication (as blunt and “passive competitive” as they might sound to one another!) which has positive guidelines to assist make certain that facts is not misplaced. that is accomplished through the transport manipulate Protocol’s (TCP) Synchronise and renowned system which is also called “The 3 way Handshake”.

For me, I discover it hard to transport on if I haven’t completely understood some thing and as Tom’s video doesn’t explain how cables and binary work, I felt I had to apprehend some stipulations to the content so i found it helpful to watch a chain on networking fundamentals by community direction starting with introduction to Networking: Networking fundamentals element.

This series of motion pictures on networking fundamentals

helped explain some of the physical components of networking that isn’t included in Tom’s video in addition to adding a little more context to a number of the layers as well as explaining the OSI version layers. I didn’t realize there has been a lot to understand approximately cables! those movies are clean to comply with with pictures to assist out alongside the manner. I even found that I had to do a short crash path in binary so ought to understand a number of the concepts. fortunately community direction have additionally finished a quick video explaining how binary honestly works:

i will surely be recapping these videos once more within the close to destiny to make sure that I apprehend the net Protocol Suite in element and then after that if there is some thing i am uncertain of I will be capable of attention on in more detail.

With the quantity of facts in those motion pictures it changed into a bit overwhelming at instances with plenty of abbreviations and numerous code so looking it more than one instances with breaks of a day or 2 in among have been very helpful so I had time to process the information.

I’m very lots a practical learner so I think i’d locate a number of this tough to fully realise or keep until i am doing it but from no longer knowing anything about networking, these films have given me a fundamental know-how of networking in its best shape and is a great base initially. I don’t need to head an excessive amount of in addition (if that’s even possible) without being capable of recollect 90% of this statistics as this can probably purpose troubles down the track.

in case you’ve were given the cease of this submit, are a complete newbie like myself and looking to observe these motion pictures then i would suggest going backwards thru the order for those videos: Binary then Intro to Networking (community direction series) and then Networking basics. I did it the other way spherical as I needed to discover what I didn’t understand first! thanks to the video creators for those excellent and helpful motion pictures!

a sensible and attractive manual to the fundamentals of laptop networking, one of the maximum critical topics for all and sundry working in cybersecurity.

• Networking is the story of the way the net works. Readers learn how machines throughout the globe work collectively to make the internet run and comfy person information — in addition to in which a community is inclined and how it can be compromised
• The ebook specializes in the safety factors of networking, meaning it’s a whole lot greater tailor-made to cybersecurity specialists than its competition

• in which most networking books are dry and convoluted, this e book is a conversational, complete, and funny manual, with actual-global examples and commonplace hacking techniques that preserve the reader involved without skimping on technical information
• the writer publications the reader through accurately trying out some networking hacking strategies, like stealing facts from corporate networks, eavesdropping on wi-fi, and cracking passwords
approximately the author

Matthew Twells started his networking profession inside the British military as a Communications structures Engineer, earlier than moving onto structures management and penetration trying out. His numerous career has concerned vulnerability studies responsibilities.

, dealing with vulnerability scanning and remediation efforts as both the technician enforcing the fixes and as a consultant on a ways large-scale initiatives, along with web software and infrastructure protection checks, and penetration testing. He blogs at www.comfortablydumb.co.uk.

As anticipated with Null Byte’s dramatic increase during the last year, we’ve got delivered many new aspiring hackers who are nonetheless missing in the fundamentals of networking. in addition, with the brand new “White Hat” certifications coming out rapidly, the examination will require a few simple networking abilities and knowledge to pass Networking Basics for Hackers, Part 1.

As a end result, I determined to offer my very own tackle networking fundamentals to make sure that everyone here has those fundamental abilties down, which I take into account basis abilities for hacking. In fact, with out simple networking and Linux talents, hacking will genuinely remain past your reach.

i can try to deal with as a minimum one simple networking talent in every of those tutorials. on this one, I want to cope with a number of the fundamentals of IP addresses, NAT, DHCP, and ports.

Networking Basics for Hackers, Part 1
Networking Basics for Hackers, Part 1 2023

IP Addresses

internet Protocol addresses (IP addresses) makes the world go ’round. Or, at the least, enable us to email, Skype, and navigate the internet. it is nearly as crucial as the arena going around!

every digital device (computer, pc, phone, pill, etc.) is assigned an IP deal with, and this is what enables us to talk and connect with it. consider an IP cope with as much like your property address. with out that address, nobody may want to locate you and ship you snail mail Networking Basics for Hackers, Part 1.

The IP address gadget we’re currently the usage of is called IP version 4, or IPv4 (we will cope with the approaching IPv6 in a coming academic). it’s far made up of 32 bits of 4 octets, or four companies of 8 bits (on/off switches).

as an instance, 192.168.1.one zero one. every of the numbers among the durations (.) is the decimal equal of 8 bits. which means that we calculate the base 2 quantity that computers use represented via the eight bits and convert them to decimal numbers that humans are greater familiar with working with (see the diagram beneath). each one of the octets (8 bits) is able to representing numbers inside the variety 0 thru 255 (2 to the 8th power) Networking Basics for Hackers, Part 1.

lessons of IP Addresses

IP addresses are normally placed into three instructions, and the levels are:

class A: zero.0.0.zero –
magnificence B: 128.zero.zero.zero –
magnificence C: 192.zero.0.0 –
In a destiny tutorial, we can address subnetting and subnet masks that fluctuate with these one of a kind IP training Networking Basics for Hackers, Part 1.

Public vs. personal IP Addresses
it is vital to notice that our IP address gadget has its barriers. the biggest limitation is that there aren’t enough IP addresses to cowl all of the gadgets that want to connect with the net. The IPv4 system that we are working with now has handiest four.3 billion IP addresses. With 7.three billion humans on earth and a ways extra gadgets, that genuinely isn’t always enough.

As a result, a device turned into advanced to reuse a group of IP addresses for use within a LAN—and are not usable over the internet. those addresses may be used time and again again within every nearby place network, but not over the net, thereby preserving the range of IP addresses vital to keep the arena going ’round Networking Basics for Hackers, Part 1.

these non-public addresses consist of:

192.168.zero.0 –
10.0.zero.0 –
172.sixteen-.0.0 –
you’ve got likely seen the private IP addresses beginning with 192.168.xxx.xxx or 10.xxx.xxx.xxx on your Kali machine whilst you type ifconfig.

that is your non-public IP this is simplest usable at the neighborhood vicinity community. To speak over the internet, it ought to be translated to a public IP by means of a NAT tool (see NAT below).


Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) assigns IP addresses dynamically. because of this you do not have the identical IP address all the time. maximum of the time, these IP cope with assignments are on a neighborhood region community. remember, on LANs we use personal IP addresses. while every tool is attached to the LAN, it need to request an IP cope with. That device sends that request to the DHCP server that then assigns an IP deal with to that system for a hard and fast length of time called a “hire Networking Basics for Hackers, Part 1.”

whenever you connect to the LAN, you’re possibly to acquire a different (dynamic) IP cope with, but commonly within the identical range. for example, 192.168.zero.zero –


network address Translation (NAT) is protocol wherein inner private IP addresses are “translated” to an outside public IP deal with that may be routed via the net to its vacation spot. take into account, private IP addresses of the systems in the LAN can not use their IP addresses on the net due to the fact they may be now not specific (each LAN uses essentially the identical IP addresses interior their community) Networking Basics for Hackers, Part 1.

The NAT device accepts requests to traverse the internet from an internal machine. It then records that gadget’s IP cope with in a desk and converts the IP address to the outside IP deal with of the router. while the packet returns from its vacation spot, the NAT device seems into its stored desk of the authentic request and forwards at the packet to the inner IP deal with of the machine that made the authentic request inside the LAN. when operating properly, the person structures and customers do not even recognize this translation is taking vicinity.

as an instance, the diagram above suggests two phones with non-public IP addresses behind a device this is serving as each a NAT tool and a router (no longer uncommon). The devices use their private IP addresses inside the LAN, however when they want to speak over the net, the NAT device translates it to one of the public IP addresses that are particular on the net. on this manner, the routers along the manner understand exactly where to ship the packets Networking Basics for Hackers, Part 1.


Ports are a sort of subaddress. The IP address is the number one deal with and the port is the subaddress. the usage of a well-worn, but effective metaphor, consider the IP deal with as the road address of a building and then the port as the apartment variety. I need the street cope with to get to the right constructing, however I want the apartment deal with to discover who i’m looking for. that is the same with ports. The IP cope with receives us to proper gadget, however the port takes us to correct service, say HTTP on port eighty.

There are sixty five,536 (2 raised to the sixteenth energy) ports. the first 1,024 are normally called the commonplace ports. human beings manifestly do not don’t forget all sixty five,536 ports (until they are savant), or maybe the 1,024 most common ports. As a hacker, protection engineer, and/or network engineer, although, there are a few ports which you ought to recognise with the aid of coronary heart Networking Basics for Hackers, Part 1:

20 FTP
21 FTP
22 SSH
23 Telnet
fifty three DNS
eighty HTTP
88 Kerberos
one hundred ten POP3
123 NTP
one hundred thirty five Microsoft’s RPC
137-139 Microsoft’s NetBIOS
143 IMAP
161 SNMP
389 LDAP
443 HTTPS or HTTP over SSL
445 SMB
500 IKE
514 syslog
3389 RDP
I could be following up with additional tutorials on networking quickly (with topics on subnetting, IPv6, TCP/IP, and more) within the near destiny, so hold coming lower back, my greenhorn hackers Networking Basics for Hackers, Part 1!

Networking Basics for Hackers, Part 1
Networking Basics for Hackers, Part 1 2023

want to begin making money as a white hat hacker? jump-start your hacking career with our 2020 top class moral Hacking Certification training package from the new Null Byte save and get over 60 hours of schooling from cybersecurity experts Networking Basics for Hackers, Part 1.


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