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WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023 You must have heard that a trusted website is attacked by a malicious script attack. People generally refer to this as a “Cross Site Scripting” attack.

How an attacker executes his code WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023 methood:

XSS is an attack where an attacker injects some malicious code (java script or html) into the input field or address bar of a web page How an attacker executes his code WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023:.

XSS scripts embedded in a website can leak sensitive data and information, including cookies, session tokens, authentication tokens, to perform phishing attacks, steal bank account information, deface websites. XSS attack vulnerability is very common but difficult to fix How an attacker executes his code WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023:.

Attackers first Test whether the target website is vulnerable to XSS attack or not by running some malicious code. It first looks for the user input field and the address line (URL line). It injects another different code and tries to execute it, if the code executes then the site is vulnerable, otherwise vulnerable WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023.


Types of xss attack How an attacker executes his code WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023::

There are three types of xss attack

Persistent XSS: where the malicious string originates from the site’s database.

Reflected XSS: where the malicious string originates from the victim’s request.

DOM-based XSS: where the vulnerability is in client-side code, not server-side code WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023.

Cross-site scripting attacks, also called XSS attacks, are a type of injection attack that injects malicious code into otherwise secure websites. An attacker will exploit a flaw in the target web application to send some type of malicious code, most often client-side JavaScript, to the end user. Instead of targeting the application host itself, XSS attacks generally target the application’s users directly. Organizations and companies running web applications can leave the door open to XSS attacks if they serve content from users or untrusted sources without proper leakage or validation How an attacker executes his code WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023:.

How an attacker executes his code WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023: XSS vulnerabilities are one of OWASP’s top 10 security concerns today, especially as many organizations rely heavily on web applications for customer interaction and authentication. However, by writing secure code, testing for vulnerabilities, and working with security tools like Veracode Dynamic Analysis, developers can prevent, detect, and patch potential vulnerabilities that allow XSS exploits WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023.

What is Cross Site Scripting (XSS) How an attacker executes his code WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023:?

XSS occurs when an attacker tricks a web application into sending data in a form that the user’s browser can execute. This is most often a combination of HTML and XSS provided by the attacker, but XSS can also be used to deliver malicious downloads, plugins, or media content. An attacker is able to trick a web application in this way when the web application allows data from an untrusted source—for example, data entered into a form by a user or passed to an API endpoint by client software—to be displayed to users without being properly escaped How an attacker executes his code WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023:. .

Because XSS can allow untrusted users to execute code in a trusted user’s browser and access certain types of data, such as session cookies, an XSS vulnerability could allow an attacker to obtain data from users and dynamically include it in web pages and take control of the website or application if is the target of an administrator or privileged user WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023.

How an attacker executes his code WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023: Malicious content delivered via XSS can be displayed immediately or every time a page is loaded or an event is executed. XSS attacks target users of a web application and can be particularly effective because they occur on a trusted website.

Click here for remediation guidelines for XSS in Java or here for remediation guidelines in ASP.NET How an attacker executes his code WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023:

Software security status v11
Read the message
Key concepts of XSS
XSS is a web attack performed on vulnerable web applications.
In XSS attacks, the victim is the user, not the application.
In XSS attacks, malicious content is delivered to users using JavaScript.
Cross Site Scripting Video
In short, an XSS vulnerability occurs when input coming into web applications is not validated and/or output to the browser is not properly escaped before being displayed WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023.

The three most common types of XSS attacks are persistent, reflected, and DOM-based.

Examples of XSS attacks
Persistent XSS
Also known as stored XSS, this type of vulnerability occurs when untrusted or unauthenticated user input is stored on the target server. Common targets for persistent XSS include message boards, comment boxes, or visitor logs—any feature where other users, whether authenticated or not, will see the attacker’s malicious content. Publicly visible profile pages, such as those common on social media sites and membership groups, are a good example of a desirable target for persistent XSS. An attacker can enter malicious scripts into profile fields, and when other users visit the profile, their browser will automatically execute the code WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023.

example of persistent xss cross site scripting

Reflective XSS
On the other hand, cross-site reflected or non-persistent scripting involves returning user input immediately. In order to exploit reflexive XSS, an attacker must trick the user into sending data to a target website, often by tricking the user into clicking on a malicious link. In many cases, reflective XSS attacks rely on phishing emails or shortened or otherwise hidden URLs sent to the target user. When the victim visits the link, the script will automatically run in their browser How an attacker executes his code WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023:.

Search results and error message pages are two common targets for reflected XSS. They often send raw user input as part of the response without ensuring that the data is properly escaped so that it is displayed safely in the browser.

Example of an xss cross site scripting attack

DOM-based XSS
DOM-based cross-site scripting, also called client-side XSS, has some similarities to reflected XSS, as it is often delivered via a malicious URL that contains malicious script. However, instead of including the data part in the trusted site’s HTTP response, the attack is performed entirely in the browser by modifying the DOM or Document Object Model. This targets the failure of legitimate JavaScript already on the page to properly sanitize user input.

XSS examples with code snippets
Example 1.
For example, an HTML fragment:

<title>Example document: %(title)</title>

is intended to illustrate a template fragment which, if it is WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023.


Cross-site Scripting (XSS) is a client-side code injection attack. The attacker’s goal is to run malicious scripts in the victim’s web browser by including malicious code in a legitimate website or web application. The actual attack occurs when the victim visits a website or web application that executes malicious code. A website or web application becomes a vehicle for delivering a malicious script to a user’s browser. Commonly used vulnerabilities for Cross-site Scripting attacks are forums, message boards, and websites that allow comments How an attacker executes his code WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023:.

A web page or web application is vulnerable to XSS if it uses raw user input in the output it generates. This user input must then be parsed by the victim’s browser. XSS attacks are possible in VBScript, ActiveX, Flash, and even CSS. However, they are most common in JavaScript, primarily because JavaScript is the foundation of most browsing experiencesHow an attacker executes his code WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023:.

“Isn’t the user having a problem with cross-site scripting?”

If an attacker can exploit an XSS vulnerability in a web page to execute arbitrary JavaScript in a user’s browser, the security of that vulnerable web page or web application and its users has been compromised. XSS is not a user problem like any other security flaw. If it affects your users, it affects you.

Cross-site scripting can also be used to deface a web page instead of targeting users. An attacker can use embedded scripts to change the content of a web page or even redirect the browser to another web page, such as one that contains malicious code How an attacker executes his code WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023:.

What can an attacker do with JavaScript?

XSS vulnerabilities are perceived as less dangerous than, for example, SQL Injection vulnerabilities. The implications of being able to run JavaScript on a web page may not seem dire at first glance. Most web browsers run JavaScript in a very tightly controlled environment. JavaScript has limited access to the user’s operating system and user files. However, JavaScript can still be dangerous if misused as part of malicious content How an attacker executes his code WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023::

The malicious JavaScript has access to all objects that the rest of the web page has access to. This includes access to the user’s cookies. Cookies are often used to store session tokens. If an attacker can obtain a user’s session cookie, they can impersonate that user, perform actions on the user’s behalf, and gain access to the user’s sensitive data.
JavaScript can read the browser’s DOM and make arbitrary modifications to it. Fortunately, this is only possible on a page running JavaScript How an attacker executes his code WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023:.
JavaScript can use the XMLHttpRequest object to send HTTP requests with arbitrary content to arbitrary destinations.
JavaScript in modern browsers can use the HTML5 API. For example, it can gain access to the user’s geolocation, webcam, microphone, and even specific files from the user’s file system. Most of these APIs require user login, but an attacker can bypass this restriction through social engineering.
The above combined with social engineering allow criminals to carry out advanced attacks including cookie theft, trojans, keylogging, phishing and identity theft. An XSS vulnerability provides the perfect basis for escalating attacks to more severe ones. Cross-site Scripting can also be used in conjunction with other types of attacks, such as Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF).

There are several types of Cross-site Scripting attacks: stored/persistent XSS, bounced/non-persistent XSS, and DOM-based XSS. You can read more about them in the article called Types of XSS.

How cross-site scripting worksHow an attacker executes his code WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023:
A typical XSS attack has two phases:

In order to run malicious JavaScript code in a victim’s browser, an attacker must first find a way to inject the malicious code (payload) into the web page the victim visits.
After that, the victim has to visit a website with malicious code. If the attack is targeted at specific victims, the attacker can use social engineering and/or phishing to send a malicious URL to the victim.
In order to perform the first step, the vulnerable website must directly include user input on its pages. The attacker can then insert a malicious string that will be used on a web page and treated as source code by the victim’s browser. There are also variants of XSS attacks where the attacker lures the user to visit a URL using social engineering and the payload is part of the link the user clicks.

The following is a snippet of server-side pseudocode used to display the most recent comment on a web page WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023:
When the page loads in the victim’s browser, the attacker’s malicious script is executed. Most often, the victim is not aware of it and is unable to prevent such an attack.

Stealing cookies using XSS
Criminals often use XSS to steal cookies. This allows them to pose as a victim. An attacker can send a cookie to their own server in a number of ways. One is to run the following client-side script in the victim’s browser:

How an attacker executes his code WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023: Cross-site scripting attacks – sometimes written as XSS – involve injecting malicious code into otherwise trusted websites. A cross-site scripting attack occurs when cybercriminals inject malicious scripts into the content of a targeted website, which is then part of the dynamic content delivered to the victim’s browser. The victim’s browser has no way of knowing that the malicious scripts cannot be trusted, so it executes them.

As a result, malicious scripts can access any cookies, session tokens or other sensitive information that the browser stores and uses on this website. Attackers can also use XSS to spread malware, rewrite website content, cause problems on social networks, and phishing for user credentials. XSS differs from other web attacks in that it does not directly target the application itself. Instead, users of the web application are at risk.

How cross-site scripting works
Cross-site scripting works by manipulating a vulnerable website to return malicious scripts to users. This often involves JavaScript, but any client-side language can be used. Cybercriminals target websites with vulnerable features that accept user input – such as search boxes, comment boxes or login forms. Criminals attach their malicious code to a legitimate website, essentially tricking browsers into running their malware every time the website is loaded.

Because the JavaScript runs on the victim’s browser page, sensitive details about the authenticated user can be stolen from the session, allowing bad actors to target site administrators and compromise websites.

Depending on how the code is embedded, the malicious content may not even reside on the web page itself, but rather as a transient element that only appears as part of the site at the time of exploitation. This can create the illusion that the actual website is compromised when it is not.

There are different ways to launch an XSS attack. For example, a trigger can be triggered automatically when the page loads or when the user hovers over certain page elements, such as hyperlinks. In some cases, XSS is done more directly, such as in an email message. Some XSS attacks do not have a specific target; an attacker simply exploits a vulnerability in an application or website and takes advantage of someone who happens to be an unlucky victim.

Depending on the extent of the attack, user accounts can be compromised, Trojans can be activated, and page content can be modified, which can mislead users into revealing their private data. Session cookies could be exposed, allowing an attacker to impersonate valid users and abuse their private accounts.

A successful cross-site scripting attack can have devastating consequences for an online business’s reputation and its relationship with its customers. Unfortunately, the flaws that allow XSS attacks to succeed are quite widespread. XSS attacks can exploit vulnerabilities in a variety of programming environments, including VBScript, Flash, ActiveX, and JavaScript. XSS primarily targets JavaScript due to the language’s tight integration with most browsers. This ability to exploit commonly used platforms makes XSS attacks dangerous and widespread.

Impact of XSS
By exploiting XSS vulnerabilities, an attacker can perform malicious actions such as:

Redirecting users to a malicious website.
Capturing user keystrokes.
Access to the user’s browser history and clipboard contents.
Running web browser-based exploits (eg, browser crashes).
Obtaining information about the cookies of a user who is logged into a website.
Stealing the session login token, allowing an attacker to interact with the victim’s application without knowing their password.
Forcing the user to send attacker-controlled requests to the server.
Changing the content of the page.
Tricking the victim into revealing their password to an app or other apps.
Infecting the victim with other malicious code using a vulnerability in the web browser itself – possibly taking over the victim’s computer.
In some cases, an XSS attack can lead to a complete compromise of the victim’s account. Attackers can trick users into entering credentials into a fake form that will provide all information to the attacker. Once the credentials are obtained, attackers can use them for identity theft or financial fraud.

Cross-site scripting can be divided into three main categories – stored XSS, mirrored XSS, and DOM-based XSS.

Stored Cross-Site Scripting (Persistent XSS)

Stored XSS – also known as Persistent XSS – is considered the most damaging type of XSS attack. Stored XSS occurs when user-supplied input is stored and then rendered on a web page. Typical entry points for embedded XSS include message boards, blog comments, user profiles, and username fields. An attacker typically exploits this vulnerability by injecting an XSS snippet into popular web pages, or by passing a link to the victim and causing the victim to view a page that contains the embedded XSS snippet. The victim visits the page and the content is executed client-side by the victim’s web browser.

Cross-Site Reflected Scripting (Persistent XSS)

The most common type of XSS is known as Reflected XSS (also known as Non-persistent XSS). In this case, the attacker’s data part must be part of the request sent to the web server. It is then bounced back such that the HTTP response includes the data portion from the HTTP request. Attackers use malicious links, phishing emails, and other social engineering techniques to trick the victim into sending a request to the server. The reflected XSS payload is then executed in the user’s browser.

Reflected XSS is not a persistent attack, so the attacker must deliver the payload to each victim. These attacks are often carried out using social networks WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023.

DOM-based cross-site scripting

DOM-based XSS refers to a cross-site scripting vulnerability that appears in the Document Object Model (DOM) instead of the HTML part. In bounced and stored cross-site scripting attacks, you can see the vulnerability payload on the response page, but with DOM-based cross-site scripting, the HTML source code of the attack and the response will be the same, meaning the payload cannot be found in the response. It can only be observed at runtime or by examining the page’s DOM.

A DOM-based XSS attack is often a client-side attack, and the malicious payload is never sent to the server. This makes it even more difficult for web application firewalls (WAFs) and security engineers who analyze server logs to detect because they never see the attack. The most commonly manipulated DOM objects include the URL (document.URL), the URL anchor (location.hash), and the referrer (document.referrer) WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023.

Cross-site scripting
An example of an XSS attack
For example: while browsing an e-commerce website, a bad actor identifies a security flaw that allows HTML tags to be inserted WHAT IS SCRIPTING ATTACK CROSS SITE 2023


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